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James the Just, known as "the brother of the Lord", served as head of the Jerusalem church, which is still honored as the "Mother Church" in Orthodox tradition.
Alexandria had been a center of Jewish learning and became a center of Christian learning.
Rome had a large congregation early in the apostolic period whom Paul the Apostle addressed in his Epistle to the Romans, and according to tradition Paul was martyred there. 30–130), the Roman capital became recognized as a Christian center of exceptional importance.
Clement I, at the end of the 1st century, wrote an epistle to the Church in Corinth intervening in a major dispute, and apologizing for not having taken action earlier.
The Edict of Milan in 313 granted freedom to all religions in the Roman Empire, beginning the Peace of the Church.
In 325, the First Council of Nicaea condemned Arianism, declaring trinitarianism dogmatic, and in its sixth canon recognized the special role of the sees of Rome, Alexandria, and Antioch.
Celebration of Easter on a Sunday, as insisted on by the pope, is the system that has prevailed (see computus).When Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne (800) as Roman Emperor, he established the precedent that, in Western Europe, no man would be emperor without being crowned by a pope.This period includes the Saeculum obscurum, the Crescentii era, and the Tusculan Papacy.From an ancient senatorial family, Gregory worked with the stern judgement and discipline typical of ancient Roman rule.Theologically, he represents the shift from the classical to the medieval outlook; his popular writings are full of dramatic miracles, potent relics, demons, angels, ghosts, and the approaching end of the world.